secretary of defense list

On Wednesday, President-elect Joe Biden announced his nominee for defense secretary would be retired Army Gen. Lloyd J. Austin III. As the secretary of defense is a cilivian position intended to independent of the active duty leadership, a secretary is required to have been retired from service for at least seven (originally ten) years, unless a waiver is approved by Congress. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. With retired Gen. Lloyd J. Austin III’s nomination to be the first Black defense secretary, the Pentagon comes face to face with its record as a place where people of color struggle to climb. A civilian, the secretary is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Defense Department continually provides information and resources on a variety of coronavirus-related subjects for members of the DOD community and the general public. The longest-serving secretary of defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. The secretary of defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. 19th: William Perry 5. Best Defense The best and worst defense secretaries, as rated by Foreign Policy’s Best Defense All the news stories about Robert Gates’s memoirs, to … A new title was coined by the Act for the head of the NME: Secretary of Defense. The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. The second-longest unbroken tenure was Caspar Weinberger's, at 6 years, 306 days. He or she also maintains close contact with the State Department and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Secretary of Defense is sixth in line to the United States … The shortest-serving secretary of defense is Elliot Richardson, who served 114 days and then was appointed U.S. attorney general amid the resignations of the Watergate Scandal. For the DoD intelligence programs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence have the principal oversight role. The deputy secretary of defense (acronym: DepSecDef) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. A member of the president's cabinet, the secretary heads the Department of Defense, created in 1947.The departmental predecessor was the Secretary of War.A civilian, the secretary is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. [20], The secretary of the treasury, the secretary of state, the attorney general, and the secretary of defense are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the size and importance of their respective departments. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 20:39. [8] The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. [17][18][19] The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the secretary of defense and the president; while the chairman may assist the secretary and president in their command functions, the chairman is not in the chain of command. The longest-serving secretary of defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. The secretary is one of only five or six civilians—the others being the president, the three "service secretaries" (the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force), and the secretary of homeland security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense)—authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. 23rd: Leon Panetta 8. List of secretaries of defense. The War Department, headed by the secretary of war, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. The Historical Office of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) dates to 1949. The secretary administers the national military budget and holds authority over personnel, supplies and other aspects of defense. The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS). All of these high-ranking positions, civil and military, require Senate confirmation. The Historical Office of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) dates to 1949. [21], On November 9, 2020, President Trump tweeted that Christopher C. Miller would be the acting secretary of defense, effective immediately,[22] bypassing Deputy Defense Secretary David Norquist, who is in line to fill the position under the Vacancies Reform Act.[23][24]. § 132) and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.. An Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. The secretary of defense is the sixth in line for the presidency. The same statute further designates the secretary as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". Biden Facing Growing Pressure Over Secretary of Defense Pick This Dec. 7, 2011 file photo shows former U.S. Defense Undersecretary Michele Flournoy, preparing for a … The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the secretary of defense, and is appointed by the president, with the advice and consent of the Senate. President-elect Joe Biden plans to choose retired Gen. Lloyd Austin to be secretary of defense, according to three officials familiar with the decision. The short­est-serv­ing Sec­re­tary of De­fense is El­liot Richard­son, who was quickly moved to US At­tor­ney Gen­eral after 114 days due to res­ig­na­tions dur­ing the Wa­ter­gate Scan­dal (not count­ing Deputy Sec­re­tary of De­fense William P. Clem… 25th: Ash Carter 10. § 823: article 23, UCMJ), and Summary Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. A member of the president's cabinet, the secretary heads the Department of Defense, created in 1947. The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. [9], The secretary of defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. President Donald Trump announced on Twitter Monday that he has fired Secretary of Defense Mark Esper, and that Christopher Miller, who serves … Official website for U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. It is one of the longest serving continuously operating offices in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and has been recognized for the excellence of its publications and programs for over a half century. 13 hours ago.   Political Independent / Unknown, The secretary of defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession, following the secretary of the treasury and preceding the attorney general.[65]. (2012). 17th: Dick Cheney 4. [25] Since the creation of the position in 1947, such a waiver has only been approved twice, for Army General George Marshall in 1950 and Marine Corps General Jim Mattis in 2017.[26]. The DDSM is analogous to the distinguished services medals issued by the military departments (i.e. In Executive Order 13533 of March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama modified the line of succession regarding who would act as the secretary of defense in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation, thus reversing the changes made by President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13394 as to the relative positions of the secretaries of the military departments. The latest version, signed by former secretary of defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987.[27][28]. [12] Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers that exceed those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the president in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". § 824: article 24 UCMJ). Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The Act also separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. 2nd Acting 26th: Mark Esper Private Secretary to Raksha Rajya Mantri : 23794621, 23792128 : 23016255 : mos-defence[at]gov[dot]in : 112-B, South Block New Delhi : 9 : Shri P K Suresh : Additional Private Secretary to Raksha Rajya Mantri : 23794621,23792128 : 23016255 : mos-defence[at]gov[dot]in Leader of the United States armed forces following the president, (including Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities), List of United States Secretaries of Defense by time in office, Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Organizational structure of the United States Department of Defense, Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, assistant to the president for national security affairs, United States Department of Homeland Security, Level I position of the Executive Schedule, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation, Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, National Security Strategy (United States), Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge, Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award, Unconventional warfare (United States Department of Defense doctrine), US Commission on National Security/21st Century, "Positional Colors for the Department of Defense", "3 U.S. Code § 19 – Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act", "Trump tweets that Defense Secretary Mark Esper has been 'terminated, "Esper's firing raises concerns about Trump's plans for the Pentagon in final weeks", "Waiver of Statutory Qualifications Relating to Prior Military Service of the Secretary of Defense", "Why Generals Need Congressional Waivers To Become Defense Secretary", Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components, "James V. Forrestal – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Louis A. Johnson – Harry S. Truman Administration", "George C. Marshall – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Robert A. Lovett – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Charles E. Wilson – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Neil H. McElroy -Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Thomas S. Gates, Jr. – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Robert S. McNamara – John F. Kennedy / Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Clark M. Gifford – Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Melvin R. Laird – Richard Nixon Administration", "Elliot L. Richardson – Richard Nixon Administration", "James R. Schlesinger – Richard Nixon / Gerald Ford Administration", "Donald H. Rumsfeld – Gerald Ford Administration", "Harold Brown – James Carter Administration", "Caspar W. Weinberger – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Frank C. Carlucci – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Richard B. Cheney – George H.W. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment. All activities in the department are accomplished under his or her supervision. It is hereby expressed as the intent of the Congress that the authority granted by this Act is not to be construed as approval by the Congress of continuing appointments of military men to the office of Secretary of Defense in the future. Secretaries of Defense. § 113 provides that "subject to the direction of the President", its occupant has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". The role was made in 1947. The secretary is a member of the National Security Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other agencies. All of the officials in the line of succession are civilians appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate: Executive Order 13533 (March 1, 2010 – present), Executive Order 13394 (December 22, 2005 – March 1, 2010). (This is not counting deputy secretaries of defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting secretary of defense). The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is responsible for policy development, planning, resource management and program evaluation.   Republican Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. The Secretary of Defense anticipates an increase in requests for assistance from interagency and civilian sources, as well as, increasing challenges to maintain the readiness of our force and the health of our military families. § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the secretary of defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department. President-elect Joe Biden will nominate retired four-star Army general Lloyd J. Austin to be secretary of defense, according to four people familiar with the decision. Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, … 26th: Jim Mattis 11. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. The secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the deputy secretary of defense (DEPSECDEF) and five under secretaries of defense in the fields of acquisition, technology & logistics, comptroller/chief financial officer, intelligence, personnel & readiness, and policy; several assistant secretaries of defense; other directors and the staffs under them. Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the president, the statutory authority of the secretary of defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Secretary of Defense is a Level I position of the Executive Schedule,[4] and thus earns a salary of $210,700 per year as of January 2018. This list includes the newest Secretary of Defense, General James Mattis. [12][13][14][15][16] Only the secretary of defense (or the president or Congress) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three military departments (the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the 10 Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, Northern Command, Southern Command, Cyber Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command). It is hereby expressed as the sense of the Congress that after General Marshall leaves the office of Secretary of Defense, no additional appointments of military men to that office shall be approved. Acting 16th: William Howard Taft IV 3. The secretary of defense exercises authority, direction and control over the three departments of the U.S. armed forces -- the Army and the Navy, as well as the Air Force.The main job of the U.S. secretary of defense is to plan, develop and execute policies that concern the military affairs and national security of the country. Mark Esper has formally stepped down from his role as acting defense secretary Monday after the Senate received his nomination from the White … The Secretary of State for Defence has overall responsibility for the business of the department. The Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), the Defense Superior Service Medal (DSSM), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM), the Joint Service Commendation Medal (JSCM) and the Joint Service Achievement Medal (JSAM) are awarded, to military personnel for service in joint duty assignments, in the name of the secretary of defense. 20th: William Cohen 6. Head to the redesigned Defense.gov where you can learn all about the Defense Department. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the secretary of defense. Bush Administration", Department of Defense Key Officials September 1947 – February 2019, "Les Aspin Serves One Year As Defense Secretary", "Leslie Aspin – William J. Clinton Administration", "William J. Perry – William J. Clinton Administration", "William S. Cohen – William J. Clinton Administration", "Donald H. Rumsfeld – George W. Bush Administration", "Robert M. Gates – George W. Bush / Barack Obama Administration", "Leon E. Panetta – Barack Obama Administration", "Chuck Hagel – Barack Obama Administration", "Ashton B. Carter – Barack Obama Administration", "James N. Mattis – Donald Trump Administration", "PN583 — Patrick M. Shanahan — Department of Defense", "Dr. Mark T. Esper – Acting Secretary of Defense", "Letter from Acting Secretary of Defense Richard V. Spencer to Pentagon", The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army, "Evolution of the Secretary of Defense in the Era of Massive Retaliation: Charles Wilson, Neil McElroy, and Thomas Gates, 1953–1961", In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir, "Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components", Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Special Access Program Oversight Committee, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency, National Security Agency/Central Security Service, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, American Forces Radio and Television Service, Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense, Assistant Secretary for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, Assistant Secretary (Financial Management and Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Energy and Environment, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs, Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Financial Management and Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisitions), Organization of the United States Marine Corps, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Financial Management & Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment & Logistics), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Manpower & Reserve Affairs), Air Force Office of Special Investigations, Alternate National Military Command Center, Joint Intelligence Operations Center Europe Analytic Center, Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, United States federal executive departments, Presidential line of succession in the United States of America, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Secretary_of_Defense&oldid=993106284, Lists of members of the Cabinet of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deputy Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Material Readiness. [11], Subject only to the orders of the president, the secretary of defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces – the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force – as well as the U.S. Coast Guard when its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense. The departmental predecessor was the Secretary of War. Robert S. McNamara was an American business executive and the eighth U.S. Secretary of Defense. [10] To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as the secretary of defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force. Com­bin­ing his two non-se­quen­tial ser­vices as Sec­re­tary of De­fense, the sec­ond longest serv­ing is Don­ald Rums­feld, who served just ten days fewer than Mc­Na­mara. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status. Since it is impractical for either Congress or the president to participate in every piece of Department of Defense affairs, the secretary of defense, and the secretary's subordinate officials generally exercise military authority. Joe Biden on Wednesday formally nominated Lloyd Austin, a retired four-star army general and the former commander of the American military effort in Iraq, to be his defense secretary… He or she also is the main advisor to the president on all Department of Defense matters and related topics. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other countries. Colin Luther Powell (2001-2005) (see also former Secretary Powell’s Archive site) Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009) (see also former Secretary Rice’s Archive site) Hillary Rodham Clinton (2009-2013) (see also Secretary Clinton’s Archive site) John Kerry (2013-2017) (see also Secretary Kerry’s Archive site) Mahan, Erin R., and Jeffrey A. Larsen, eds. WASHINGTON (AP) — President-elect Joe Biden will nominate retired four-star Army general Lloyd J. Austin to be secretary of defense, according to four people familiar with the decision. The new US Secretary of Defense held his first press briefing at the Pentagon Wednesday to explain his top priorities. While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials: the DDSM can only be awarded by the secretary of defense. US Secretaries of Defense. The secretary of defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council. The first secretary of defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as the secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. The most important committees, with respect to the entire department, are the two authorizing committees, the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) and the House Armed Services Committee (HASC), and the two appropriations committees, the Senate Appropriations Committee and the House Appropriations Committee. Mr. Christopher C. Miller is the Acting Secretary of Defense, appointed Nov. 9, 2020.. Miller is a longtime veteran of the special operations community who retired from the Army in 2014 as a colonel. Explore trending topics, experience DOD through interactive pieces, engage by testing your wit with quizzes and observe DOD in action via photos and videos. Defenselink bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010; and Marshall Foundation bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010. A deputy and several assistant secretaries are answerable to the secretary. It is one of the longest serving continuously operating offices in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and has been recognized for the excellence of its publications and programs for over a half century. It renamed the Department of War the Department of the Army, and added both it and the Department of the Navy to a newly established National Military Establishment (NME). The position of the deputy secretary of defense, the number two position in the department, was also created at this time. The longest-serv­ing Sec­re­tary of De­fense is Robert Mc­Na­mara, who served for a total of 2,595 days. As the head of the department, the secretary of defense is the chief witness for the congressional committees with oversight responsibilities over the Department of Defense. Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the secretary of the military department concerned and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the secretary of defense before it can be handed over to the president, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress. 22nd: Robert Gates 7. As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the secretary of defense. For comprehensiveness, the list below includes, in addition to dismissals and resignations, routine job changes such as promotions (e.g. James Mattis, a retired United States Marine Corps general, currently serves in that role. Since the release of the candidates for the defense secretary position, Biden has steadily moved forward with naming much of his national security team, which includes Tony Blinken for Secretary of State, Jake Sullivan for National Security Adviser, Arvil Haines for Director of National Intelligence, Alejandro Mayorkas for Department of Homeland Security Secretary, Linda Thomas- … 24th: Chuck Hagel 9. The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president.This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other … The move … In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made. [30] As one of the principals, the secretary along with the vice president, secretary of state and the assistant to the president for national security affairs participates in biweekly Principals Committee (PC) meetings, preparing and coordinating issues before they are brought before full NSC sessions chaired by the president. In this July 16, 2019 photo, Secretary of the Army and Secretary of Defense nominee Mark Esper testifies before a Senate Armed Services Committee confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington. Also, such an official is responsible for the department's resource management and fiscal and program evaluation. 1. Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force, Army chief of staff, commandant of the Marine Corps, chief of naval operations, Air Force chief of staff, chief of space operations, and chief of the National Guard Bureau and the combatant commanders of the Combatant Commands. 1st Acting 26th: Patrick M. Shanahan 12. The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S.[5][6][7] The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president. Concurrence with the State Department and the status quo branch of service, the of... Issued by the president on all Department of defense was last edited on 8 2020. 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